This tutorial explains how to quickly add custom HTTP headers using a bit of .htaccess.
In this tutorial, we're talking about custom HTTP headers, which look like this:
So when someone or something requests your web page(s), Apache will return your custom header, along with whatever other headers it usually sends. This is useful for many things, especially testing and troubleshooting various types of functionality, both server-side and client-side.
The basic idea
To add a custom header, we use Apache's versatile
Header directive, like so:
Header add Custom-Header "parameter=value"
Here we are doing the following:
- Instructing Apache to add a header named "Custom-Header"
- Setting the header parameter and value to "parameter" and "value", respectively
That's all there is to it!
Server request & response
Here is an example of an HTTP request made with the previous custom-header directive in place. The request looks like this:
GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.11; rv:47.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/47.0 Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8 Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5 Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br DNT: 1 Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0
..to which the server responded with the following headers:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: nginx Date: Mon, 01 Aug 2016 17:58:14 GMT Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Transfer-Encoding: chunked Connection: keep-alive X-Powered-By: PHP/5.6.24, PleskLin strict-transport-security: max-age=63072000; includeSubDomains; preload Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate Pragma: no-cache Expires: 0 Custom-Header: parameter=value Content-Language: en
Notice our custom header in the penultimate line, exactly as specified via the site's root .htaccess file.
A couple of notes regarding proper syntax. Let's say that we're adding a custom header via the following code:
It's important to understand that the header name (e.g., "Crunchy-Tacos") must not contain any spaces or weird characters. Stick with alphanumeric characters and use underscore and hyphens as needed.
The "parameter=value" string (e.g., "taste=delicious"), on the other hand, may include spaces if you quote the string. So these examples are valid:
Crunchy-Tacos: "taste=really delicious"
..but this is not valid and will trigger a 500-level server error:
Crunchy-Tacos: taste=really delicious
So quotes are required only when including spaces in the "parameter=value" string.
To round out this tutorial, here are some examples of adding custom headers via .htaccess.
Add custom headers to all requests
As explained previously, you can add custom headers to all requests by placing the directive in your site's root .htaccess file.
# add custom header to all requests Crunchy-Tacos: "taste=delicious"
Add custom headers to a single file
To add a custom header to a single file or resource, we can use the
Files directive, like so:
# add custom header to single file <Files example.html> Crunchy-Tacos: "taste=delicious" </Files>
Add custom headers to multiple files
To add a custom header to multiple files or resources, we can use the
Files directive with a regular expression, like so:
# add custom header to multiple files <Files ~ "\.(jpe?g|png|gif|mp3|wav|ogg|m4a|mp4|mov|wmv|avi)$"> Crunchy-Tacos: "taste=delicious" </Files>
Alternately we can use Apache's
# add custom header to multiple files <FilesMatch "\.(jpe?g|png|gif|mp3|wav|ogg|m4a|mp4|mov|wmv|avi)$"> Crunchy-Tacos: "taste=delicious" </FilesMatch>